Eski tuvaletlere, M.Ö.4000’li yıllarda Mezopotamya’da rastlanır. Hindistan’da, Suriye’de ve daha başka yerlerde tıpkı bizdeki alaturka helalar bulunuyordu. Hatta Mısır’da Firavun mezarlarına, banyo ve tuvalet ilâve etmek gibi ilginç bir adet bile vardı. Yani toprağı bol olasıca ayaklanırsa, önce ihtiyaç gidersin sonra çimsin diye düşünmüşlerdi. Van’da ortaya çıkarılan ve M.O. 800’lü yıllara dayanan tuvalet kalıntısı ise bugünkü “alaturka tuvalet”in aynısıdır. Hitit Uygarlığı’nda da dönemine göre bir hayli gelişmiş kanalizasyon sistemi vardı.

Yüzümüzü batıya çevirdiğimizde, burnumuza hoş olmayan kokular gelir. Mesela Herodot (M.O. 484-425)’un yaşadığı o parlak dönemde, eski Yunanlılar helâyı bilmezlermiş. Herkes gece karanlığında sokak aralarında işini görürmüş.

Roma Uygarlığı’nda insanlar hem ihtiyaç giderirler, hem de karşılıklı sohbet ederlerdi. Tuvaletler, bir nevi şehir meclisi görevi görürlerdi!

Batı insanının ifrat ve tefrit arasında bocalayıp bir türlü orta yolu tutturamaması “def-i hâcet” konusunda da görülür. Eski Yunan Medeniyeti’nin burnu pis kokudan kurtulmazken, Eski Roma işi fazla abartır.

Roma Uygarlığı’nda tuvaletler birer toplumsal kurumdu, bir tür meclis görevi yaparlardı. Şehrin ileri gelenleri, tüccarları 30-40 kişilik umumi tuvaletlerde yüzyüze oturarak hem ihtiyaçlarını giderir, hem de kentin yüksek menfaatlerini tartışır, iş ilişkileri kurarlardı. Günümüzde böyle bir mekânı dünya gözüyle görmeyen varsa, bir koşu Efes harabelerine gidebilir. (Adrian Kitaplığını arkana alacaksın, sağdaki rampayı biraz çıkınca solda…)

Ehli Keyifler İçin

Bugün buna benzer manzaraları, Batı’da çıkan ev dekorasyonu dergilerinde görebiliyoruz. Ama bir farkla; eskiden grup terapi yaparlarmış. Ahir zaman insanı iyice bencilleştiği için, yaşadığı zevki başkalarıyla paylaşmıyor, “free” takılıyor. Dahası, eline gazetesini veya kitabını alıp tuvalete giren ve -hiç abartmıyorum- bir şeyler atıştıranlara, sektör bazında hizmet vermek için mini dekorlar imal ediyorlar.

Gerçi tuvaletler “hayal ve tefekkür” dünyasıdır. Ancak bu hayal ve tefekkür düşkünlerinin bazıları işi abartıp tuvalete küçük bir kitaplık ve çalışma masası yapmaya kadar götürürse seyredin manzarayı.

Garbin Afakını Sarmışsa Kokular

Tarihçiler “mekân” olarak tuvaletin, Doğu’dan Batı’ya geçtiğinde hemfikirler. Fakat bu geçiş yüzyıllar sürmüş. Ortaçağ Avrupası’nda görülen salgın hastalıkların başta gelen sebeplerinden biri de buymuş.

Elhak doğrudur. Zira bizzat kendi eserlerinden öğrendiğimize göre “her türlü pislik” sokaklara dökülürmüş. Mesela, 1388 yılında İngiltere Kral Il Richard, göl ve derelere def-i hacet yapılmasını yasaklar. Ancak nereye yapılacağını söylemeyi unutur, Zavallı halk ne yapsın? Çözümü sokakta arar. Evinde ürettiği her türlü pisliği: büyük, küçük ne varsa sokak camından aşağı salar. Bu iş o kadar azıtılmış ki, mesela Edinburgh’da gece sokağa çıkma gafletinde bulunan birisi, başına bir oturağın boşaltılmasını önlemek için, sürekli olarak “Heed your handle!” (Elindekine dikkat et!) diye bağırmak zorunda kalırdı.

Fransa pek mi iyi durumdaydı sanki? “Güneş Kral” denen XIV. Louis in Parisi’nde de her çeşit kirli su gece gündüz demeden pencereden sokağa, bahçeye boşaltılırdı. Ancak Fransızlar, İngilizler gibi kaba değillerdi. Eline lazımlığı alan pencereyi açar ve aşağıdakinin cinsine göre, cümle başına bir mösyö, matmazel veya madam ekleyerek “Gare à l’eau!” (Suya dikkat!) diye bağırıp boşaltıverirdi.

Elit kesimin bu konuda da ayrıcalığı vardı. Mesela çişi gelen erkek hemen her koridorda bulunan oyuğun içine yapardı. Eğer ihtiyaç büyükse, bir kenarda elde ettiği mamulü bu oyuğun içine atardı. Oyuğun ucu ise ya sokağa veya bahçeye çıkardı. Bu sebeple İspanya, Almanya ve Fransa’da saraylar, şatolar leş gibi kokardı.

Özel Sektör Halkın Hizmetinde

Her sahada olduğu gibi, bu konuda da özel sektör devreye girer. Başına kazurat yiyenler için, tarihin en büyük keşiflerinden birini yaparlar. İlham, Yahudiler’in dini simgesi olan şapkadan gen Benzerlerini, güneşliğini leğen gibi bol tutarak imal ederler ve fötr şapkayı piyasaya sürerler. Münasebetsiz maddelerce kirlenmek istemeyenlerin çokluğu sebebiyle, bu moda, kadın ve erkekler arasında çok tutulur. Öyle ki; “oturak terörü” 18’inci yüzyılın sonun polisçe yasaklanmasına rağmen, bu moda hâlâ revaçtadır.

“Her şeyi devletten beklemek olmaz.” sloganıyla hareket eden özel sektör, çözüm üretmeye devam eder. “Seyyar umumi helâ” görevi gören, ellerinde pelerinle dolaşıp, ihtiyacı olanları bu pelerinin altına alarak işlerini görmelerini sağlayan ve bunun karşılığında da para alan kişiler türer. Ancak, ihtiyaç molası sokak ortasında verilir, elde edilen “mamulât” yine sokaklara dökülürdü.

O dönemin Paris’inde, çevrede insan olup olmadığı hiç önemsenmeden her yerde rahatlama serbestliği vardı. Hatta Louvre Sarayı’nın merdivenlerinde bile ihtiyaç giderilirdi.

Bir Servete Bedel

Fransa Kralı XIV. Louis, Paris’in batı yakasına Versailles (Versay) Sarayı’nı yaptırdığında, teamül gereği içine tuvalet koymamıştı. Buna karşılık sarayın demirbaş listesinde bir sürü lâzımlıktan (oturak) başka, 208 adet basit tipte ve 66 adet de büyük ve süslü, oturaklı iskemle bulunmaktaydı. Oturak deyip geçmeyin! Bir tanesinin maliyeti, bir stadyum dolusu fakiri doyuracak değerdeydi. Zira oturaklar, son derece nadide porselenden yapılıp, çiçek vazoları gibi, resim ve motiflerle süsleniyordu. Süslemedeki maksat, güya bunlar boşaltılmaya götürülürken çorba kasesi mi, yoksa dışkı kabı mı olduğu anlaşılmasın diyeymiş.

Ancak, oturağın olmadığı acil durumlarda ise Versay Sarayı’nda, koridor ve şömineler hizmet veriyordu. Yazımızın başında Siomis Freud’un bir iddiasını nakletmiştik. Adamcağız haklıymış meğerse… Böyle bir ortamda yaşayan birinden ancak böyle bir iddia sadır olurdu.

İtibarın Böylesi

XIV. Louis’den bir Louis fazla olarak dünyaya gelen XV. Louis ise, işin zevkini çıkartanlardanmış. Saray erkânını kabul ettiği zaman, taht biçimindeki süslü, yüksek oturaklı koltuğunda oturur, huzurdakilerin iltifatlarını kabul ettiği sırada da hiç çekinmeden gereğini yaparmış. Özel koltuğun arkasındaki odadan oturağı değiştirmek, ekselanslarının alt katlarına ulaşıp silme imkânı bile varmış. Bu görev ise uşaklara değil, ancak kralın sevdiği saray erkânının bazılarına, büyük bir lütuf olarak verilirmiş. İtibara bak!..

Medeniyet yarışında Almanya’yı atlarsak ayıp olur. 1483’te Imparator III. Friedrich Almanyası’nda, ekselansları Reutlingen şehrini ziyaret etme gafletinde bulunurlar. Kır atıyla halkı selâmlarken sokaktaki pisliğin içine batmaktan zor kurtulur.

İdrarın vergilendirilmesi (aman maliyemiz duymasın), bir jimnastik öğretmeninin verdiği teşaşür (işeme) dersi Avrupa’da XX. yüzyıl başlarına kadar vaka-i âdiyedendi.

Geçmişe Mazi Derler/Ahmet Sarbay

Not: Bu yazıdaki her şey alıntıdır. Kendi düşüncemi ifade etmemiş olup, sadece kitaplardaki ilginç gördüğüm yerleri paylaşıyorum.

Keyifli okumalar.

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