EMİR TİMUR HAN VE ŞAHSİYETİ

Timur, Türk-İslâm tarihinin büyük hükümdarlarından olup, babası Moğol Barlas Aşireti reislerinden Emir Turgaya, annesi Tigin Hatun’dur. 1336 senesinde Semerkand’ın güneyinde bulunan Keş şehrine bağlı bir kasaba olan Hace Ilgar mevkiinde doğdu. Kendisi topal idi ve bu sebep le “Timur-lenk” yani “Aksak Timur” denilirdi. Sade giyinen, az konuşan birisi olan Timur Han, ilim sahibi bir hükümdârdı. Pek çok medrese ve kütüphane yaptırdı. İslâm ulemâsına karşı son derece hürmetkâr idi.

Cengiz Han’ın zulüm ve katliamlarla dolu kânûnlarını bir tarafa iten Timur Han, İslâm’ın prensiplerine sâdık bir devlet kurdu. Bütün tebeasını şeriat hükümlerine göre emr-i bi’l-ma’ruf ve nehy-i ani’l-münkerle amel ettirdi 191.

Çok mütevâzı, sâde ve dervişâne bir hayâtı vardı. Kazandığı zaferler hep manevî bir işâret netîcesinde olmuş idi. Hoca Ahmed Yesevî’nin tarîkatından da feyiz alan Timur Han, bu yolun manevî terbiyesini de aldı. Tarîkatın düstûrlarını yerine getiren Timur, bu sayede zafere ulaştığını su şekilde anlatmıştı:

“Rum diyârına yürüdüğüm zaman Hoca Ahmed Yesevî’nin Makâmât’ından tefe’ül ettim. Bunda bir işâret (müjde) buldum ki, her ne zaman müşkilâta uğrasam bunu okurdum. Ben bunu ezberledim. Rum askerleri ile karşılaştığım zaman bunu yetmiş defa okudum, zafer hâsıl oldu”192.

Timur Han, bir gün adamları ile birlikte yeşillik bir yerde oturmuş, âlimlerin üstünlükleri ile velîlerin kerametlerinden konuşuyorlardı. O sırada biraz ötelerden bir topluluğun geçtiğini gördüler. Timur Han, soruşturup, o geçenlerin Silsile-i Aliyye-i Nakşibendiye’nin büyüklerinden Seyyid Emir Külal Hazretleri ve talebeleri olduğunu öğrendi. Hemen kalkıp, bizzat kendisi edeple o büyük zâtın yanına vardı:

“Efendim, himmet edip meclisimizi şereflendirseniz, biz de sohbet ve nasihatlerinizden istifade etsek!” diye yalvardı. Bunun üzerine Seyyid Emir Kilal Hazretleri:

“Dervişlerin sözleri gizli olur. Bir işâret olmadıkça bir şey söyleyemeyiz. Hiçbir zaman kendinden bir söz söyleme ve gâfil olma. Önüne mühim bir işin çıkacağını ve bunda muvaffak olacağını görüyorum.” buyurdu. Oradan ayrıldıktan birkaç gün sonra, Seyyid Emir Külal Hazretleri bir gün talebelerinden Şeyh Mansur’u çağırdı ve;

“Hiç durma, süratle Emir Timur’a git söyle, derhal Harezm tarafına harekete geçsin. Eğer oturuyorsa hemen kalksın, ayakta ise harekete geçsin, hiç durmasın. Harezm’i alınca, Semerkand’a yürüsün.” der Timur Han bu haber üzerine hemen harekete geçti ve birçok muhârebeyi kazanarak batıya doğru ilerledi.

Âlimlere karşı hürmeti büyük olan Timur Han, vefât etmiş olanların kabirlerine karşı da hürmette kusur etmez, yıkılmış olanları en güzel sûrette imâr ederdi. Nitekim Hoca Ahmed Yesevi’nin kabrine türbe yaptır- mıştı194. İslâm’ı yıkmak isteyen bozuk îtikadlı kişilere karşı şiddetle karşı koyar, onların bütün mekânlarını ortadan kaldırırdı. Yahûdi olduğunu gizleyip, kendi sapık fikirlerini İslâm gibi göstererek nüfuz elde eden, haramlara helâl deyip kendini tanrı ilan etme sapıklığını gösteren Fazlullah Hurûfî’yi öldürttüğü gibi adamlarını da dağıttı. Bütün Hurûfî tekkelerini yıktırarak, merkezleri hâline gelen Esterabâd şehrini yerle bir ettirdi. Timur’un 1393 senesinde gerçekleştirdiği bu hizmet, Ehl-i Sünnet Müslümanları arasında büyük memnuniyet meydâna getirdi ve kendisi de hayır duâ aldı. Timur Han, İslâmî ve örfî kânûnlar ve tüzüklerle memleketinin idâresini sağladı 195.

Osmanlı Tarihi Cilt 1 – Ömer Faruk Yılmaz

Kaynakça: 

191 Milli Tetebbular Mecmuasi, nr. 5, s. 356-357.
192 Kadı Mahdum Nebî Can Hâtif (Hucendli), Vâkiat-1 Timur, Taşkent 1308’den naklen Fuat Köprülü, Türk Edebiyatında ilk Mutasavvıflar, s. 33.
193 Seyyid Emir Külal hazretlerinin Timur Han ile münâsebetleri hakkında bkz. Gulam Mustafa Han, Agah-ı Seyyid Emir Külal, Karaçi.
194 Hasan Küçük, Osmanlı Devleti’ni Tarih Sahnesine Çıkaran Kuvvetlerden Bir İstanbul 1976, s. 74.
195 Timur Han, Tüzükat-1 Timur, terc. M. Rahmi, İstanbul 1920, muh. yer; Ahmed b. Abd İbn-i Arabşah, Acâibü’l-makdûr fî nevâib-i Timur- Tarih-i Timur Gürgan, terc. Nazmizâde Hisonin Murteza, Ceridehane Matbaası, İstanbul 1277, s. 5-243.

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