Bir yüksek okulun konferans salonunda, solcu bir yazar, talebeye Türk Divan Edebiyâtı’nı kötüleyen bir konferans veriyor.

Niçin?

Divan Edebiyâtı, Türk aydınlarının 1000 yıl boyunca sevip yaşattıkları, dünyânın en uzun ömürlü bir edebiyat ekolüdür. Kötü bir edebiyat olsa, imparatorluk devrinin o hârikulâde yüksek mimâri, mûsikî, süsleme vb. gibi sanat ve medeniyet eserlerini yaratan millet, bu edebiyâta bu kadar sevgiyle, harâretle sarılır mıydı?

İftirâcıların mantığı ve hedefi şudur:

Mâdemki bu edebiyat kötüdür, şu halde asırlarca ona bağlanıp kalan atalarımız da kötü kişilerdir. Bir takım zevksizler ve mukallitlerdir. Bu hedefin de bir başka hedefi vardır:

Mâdemki netîcede ataların kötülüğü anlaşılıyor, öyle ise sen ey çocuk, o ataları bırak da ileriye bak!…

Anarşist rejimlerin sarıldığı, mâzisiz hedeflere koş!

Böylelikle büyük milletlerin mázilerinden hız almak suretiyle duydukları yukarılık duygusunu bu duyguyu her milletten fazla duymaya hakkı olan bir millete yasak etmek. Onu bu duygudan uzaklaştırmak, onu, o kadar büyük bir mâziden habersiz bırakmak.

Böyle bir konferansın bundan başka hedefi olamaz. Hattâ hedefi başka olsa bile bundan başka neticesi olamaz.

Kaldı ki söylenen söz, hem yalan hem yanlıştır.

Konferansçı, davâsını ispat için hileye başvuruyor

Çocuklara diyor ki:

Divan Edebiyâtı, baştan başa Arap ve Acem dillerini kullanmış, yabancı edebiyattır. Türkçe değildir, meselâ, şair Baki’nin Kanuni Sultan Süleyman için yazdığı mersiyenin şu ilk beytine bakınız: (Mübâlâğalı bir âhenkle okuyarak:)

Ey pây-bend-i dâmgeh-i kayd-i nâm ü neng
Tâ key hevâ-yi meşgale-i dehr-i bi-direng

Nasıl, bir şey anladınız mı? Tabii anlayamazsınız.

Çünkü bütün kelimeleri Arapça veya Farsçadır.

Eh, böyle bir beyit, üstelik tezyif (bir şeyle alay etme) edici bir sesle okundu mu; esâsen, bütün Dîvan Edebiyâti’nı hep böyle kelimelerle söylenmiş sanacak kadar, Türk edebiyatından habersiz yetiştirilmiş ve bu rezâlete inanacak saflıktaki gençler arasında konferansçıya hak verenler, alkış tutanlar, artık yığın yığındır. Bundan:

-Aptalları aldattım..diyen konferansçı da tabiî çok memnundur.

Zavallı, câhil ve hain konferanscı, dâvâsını isbat için, böyle örnekler okumaya devam eder. Bir Cihan Pâdişahı’nın ölümü dolayısıyla söylenen bu mersiyeye niçin öyle ihtişamlı bir lisanla başlandığını bilmez. Aynı edebiyátın bâzan halk Türkçesiyle, bâzan da hattá öz Türkçe söylenmiş mısrâ ve beyitlerini çocuklardan gizlemeye çalışır. Meselâ Bâki’nin aynı matla’ beyti arkasından söylediği kıt’alardaki:

Şemşir gibi rûy-ı zemine taraf taraf
Saldın demir kuşaklı cihan pehlevanları
Aldın hezâr bütgedeyi mescid eyledin
Nâkus yerlerinde okuttun ezanları

gibi, Türkçe ve Türkçeleşmiş kelimelerle ve tam bir Türk üslûbuyla söylenmiş beyitleri hatırlatmak bile istemez.

Türk Divan Edebiyâti’nın şiir dili, umûmiyetle iki türlüdür:

Biri, şairlerin, İslâm felsefesi, hikmet, tasavvuf mitoloji, kimya, astronomi ve çok iyi bildikleri diğer İslâmî ilimlerle zengin İslâm medeniyeti kültürüyle söyledikleri, kültür ve tefekkür şiirinde kullandıkları lisan.

Bu dil, pek tabii olarak, İslâm medeniyetinin ortak kültür lisânından alınmış kelime ve terimlerle yüklüdür. Tıpkı, asırlarca ve bugün hâlâ ilim eserlerini Latince veya Latince’den alınmış kelime ve terimlerle yazan Avrupalıların kullandıkları dil gibi.

İkinci dil yine umumiyetle aşk şiirlerinde ve aşk hikâyelerinde rastlanan, sâde, külfetsiz, samîmî ve bâzan öz Türkçe denebilecek saflıkta, bâzan da tamâmıyle öz Türkçe mısrâlarla söylenen şiirlerde görülür.

Divan Edebiyâtı ve Öz Türkçe?

Evet, bunda yadırganacak hiçbir şey yoktur. Bu edebiyatta “sâde Türkçe” ve “öz Türkçe” mısrâlar tümen tümendir. Yeter ki bu edebiyâtı onu benimseyerek, onu, büyüklüğüne inandığınız ve sizin dedeleriniz oluşlarıyla övündüğünüz Türklerin edebiyâtı bilerek, böyle büyük bir gönülle okuyunuz. Bu gözle araştırınız. Bu inanışla tanıyınız.

Şimdi size misaller vereyim.

XIV. asır’dan:

Budur ol aşkı gönlüm eğleyen
Cânum içindeki sultânum benim
Budur ol gönlümü yağmâ eyleyen
Cânum olsun âna kurbânum benim.

                   (Erzurumlu Darîr, Kıssa-ı Yûsuf)

XVI. asır’dan

Ağzını derlerdi yok dîdüklerince vâr imiş.

                                                          (Fuzuli)

Gönlüm akıtdı şimdi beni durmaz ağladur
Her yâneden ayağına altun akup gelür
Yollarda kaldı gözlerimiz gelmedi haber

                                                          (Bâki)

Görülüyor ki bu misallerin büyük bir kısmı Türkçe’dir. Hem de öyle uydurma değil, Şeyhî gibi, Ahmed Paşa ve Necâti gibi, Fuzûli ve Bâkî gibi en büyük Divan şâirlerinin kullandıkları “hâlis Türkçe”dir.

Kaldı ki bu misalleri ben daha yüzlerce, binlerce sıralayabilirim. Esâsen bunlar hazırlamış bulunduğum “Divan Şirinde Sâde Türkçe Mısrâlar Antolojisi’nden” gelişi güzel alınmıştır. Ayrıca, bu tarama daha geniş ölçüde tutulursa böyle mısrâların sayısı bu binleri defalarca aşacak kadar yükselebilir.

Bu böyle olunca Türk Divan şiirine “Arapçadır!” diyenlere câhil ve daha fenâsı hâin demeye hakkımız vardır. Aynı adamların, aynı gençlere bu sefer halk şâirlerini -onlara göre halkların şâirlerini- gûya daha üstün göstermek için, onların şiirlerinin öz Türkçe olduğunu söylemeleri de aynı şekilde bir cehâlet ve hıyânet örneğidir. Çünkü Yunus Emre’den ve Karaca Oğlan’dan başlayarak, Türk halk şâirlerinin dillerinde Arapça’dan, Farsça’dan, Yunanca, Latince vb. dillerden girip Türkçeleşmiş kelime sayısı pek çoktur. Burada sözü uzatmamak için, bu bahsi Karaca Oğlan’in şu tanınmış şiiri ile bitiriyorum:

Elâ gözlüm ben bu ilden gidersem
Zülfü perişânım kal melil melil
Kerem et hâtırdan çıkarma beni
Ağla, göz yaşını sil melil melil
Elvan çiçeklerden sokma başına
Kudret kalemini çekme kaşına
Beni unutursan doyma yaşına
Gez benim aşkımla yar melil melil

Not: Bu yazı Nihad Sâmi Banarlı’nın yazmış olduğu “Türkçenin Sırları” kitabından alıntılanmıştır.

Not 2: Okuyucuyu yormasın diye yazıdaki tüm şiirleri alıntı yapmadım, arzu eden olursa kitaptan diğer şiir örneklerine bakabilir.

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